Switches Gate and Optocouplers

Heading The Various circuit assembly verions had slowly advancing switch designs.  The job of the Alternator  and o switches was to gate pwm and switch in voltage to avoid amp draw and provid a higher dc to dc voltage to chage cell . Here we cover the range switches in our Hydrogen Hot Rod 

tool box.

Builder Notes

Did you see the very last control box Stan designed on the estate pictures?

 

The SCR which was controlled by a optocoupler in previous designs was replaced with a solid state relay.

Multi Switch SIMPLE Versions

Stan did many designs to cover every angle of his patents but only actually used a couple of his designs. The one's that I know he had working for sure had this in common:-


1. On his 9 cell alternator design, he has two signals, one from the alternator and one from a variac. One signal is modulating the other then he gates it.
 

2. On his buggy set up he modulates the alternator signal with a 50% duty cycle pulse then gates it again.
Same pattern in both designs.


In Puharich's set up, he modulates a carrier wave

BUT he uses a TAU of 3 seconds to vary the entire signal voltage from zero to 100% voltage then back to zero. Three distinct similarities but the TAU and gate differ in the fact that the gate does not offer a ranging voltage amplitude.


What conclusions can we take from this finer look at the switches ?
The conclusions are staring us in the face, the spin state of water to which Puharich refers which is affected by the length of TAU does not require zero to 100% voltage amplitude across TAU, it only requires that you DEFINE the length of TAU.

 

In other words the spin state of water is not responding to TAU voltage amplitude but responding to TIME differential.


Look at Stan's schematic, he places a T3 in his gate. and the read on about our switch ranges.

 

Therefore is must be concluded that Stan's Meyers entire signal length including each pulse train and the following gate of zero voltage is three seconds.

 

It then replicates Puharich's TAU perfectly because it starts at zero voltage and ends in zero voltage, anything between is irrelevant.

You can have 2.5 seconds of pulses and half a second of gate, you can have 1.7 seconds of pulse and 1.3 seconds of gate etc etc etc.

 

As long as it is 3 seconds exactly between the start of each positive pulse train and the voltage starts and ends at zero then you are at correct TAU.

I am very glad people all over the world are now building this.

There is absolutely no doubt about it, Stan Meyer's gate and Puharich's TAU is the exact same thing.

 

All you need to do to make Stan's designs work is to set the gate as follows:-

 

1) The duty cycle of the gate needs to be at 90% in favour of  'on'

     and 10% in favour of 'off'.

 

2) BUT...the entire length of the gate time on and off must be three seconds exact.       This is the error of our ways.

SCR Switch 

Entry level Circuit work well with 8xa ,9xb,  can be diven by 9xa but not ideal as 9xa should drive mosfet or transistor boards. Based on Myer Original Work and parts = YES IT WORKS

The optocoupler and scr are the heart of the meyer demo circuit can also be used on this frequency generator. the opto coupler is triggered by 5 volts from freqncy gen or a arduino or pc the scr is made to chop a rectified ac power source. such as a wall outlet, with a full wave rectifier on it. the board here has built in most of the componates to make it function  opto coupler. yes the opto has a top speed. it is higher then 1khz In Meyers Design the optocoupler and scr are the centre  of the meyer circuits he showed

 

SCR board will only work with the 8xa know wonder I have been having problems with my 9xa board

What are you supposed to use the 9xa board with? 

just use one side or channel to work the scr board  the 9xa can run a transistor, for double channels 
a scr is a silicone controlled rectifier  transistor will turn on and off any time you tell it to

You can't use an SCR to drive a step up transformer.

 

The SCR is used to drive the EC52 core choke coils. If you want to drive a step up transformer, you need a mosfet circuit or a transistor circuit. As I already stated, you can't drive the SCR trigger faster than 120hz.

If You are mixing two different circuits together , you can't do that. The SCR circuit will only work with the 8XA set up. 

 

 

A compliment to the 9xb and 9xa

 

  • SCR s4025l 25 amp

  • rectfier kbu808

  • diode 1n4007

  • diode t6a 6amp 1000 volt

  • resistor 100ohm 5 watt or bigger

  • opto coupler hiidi

  • 1/4 or 1/2 watt 220 ohm

 

compliment to the 9xb and 9xa

 

MAx Notes 

the input is for if you have a different signal gen. i use a different signal gen then the one we sell. i just connect it to that input. then i have the meyer frequency pulsing the scr. i just set my frequency gen to the meyer frequencies. also, if you had a signal gen like say a sound card for your computor.....you can send it to that input. or a hand operated switch even. 5 volts signal will make it fuction. put a 1k resistor instead of a 220 and trigger it with a 12 volt signal.

 

The scr is just a gate for your 120hz or 100hz....the house power is your frequency and the scr is the gate. the scr must see a pulse in order for it to chop the signal.

 

The variac is 60 hz ac. then rectified, it becomes 120 hz pulsed DC. the scr is designed to cut the 120 hz DC. so for the scr circuit, it is designed for one channel of that circuit to turn 120 hz on and off

 

You can't use an SCR to drive a step up transformer. The SCR is used to drive the EC52 core choke coils. If you want to drive a step up transformer, you need a mosfet circuit or a transistor circuit. As I already stated, you can't drive the SCR trigger faster than 120hz. You are mixing two different circuits together and you can't do that. The SCR circuit will only work with the 8XA set up.

 

Just use one side or channel to work the scr board the 9xa can run a transistor, for double channels a scr is a silicone controlled rectifier a transistor will turn on and off any time you tell it to

the house power will be 50hz EU  to 60 hz US  ac wich converts to 100 U to 120 hz USA dc pulsed, it will not change. 

 

You pulse the voltage behind the scr, you do not gate it. (that is your frequency) The Scr is the (gate.) Amp meter can go between the positive choke and the cell and the cell and negative choke. You do not need a rectified pulse from a bridge.A frequency will be determined based on cell capacitance and the choke sizing. You will be able to watch the square pulses and scr turning the circuit off, use 0-100vdc. It is not only a amp inhibiting circuit, it also is a resonate circuit. When you pull water apart you free electrons, you should be able to barely draw a load from the source, yet pull amps worth of electrons loose in the water and have little to no amps pulling thru the negative choke and is also why he used 0-100v.If done correctly in resonance, the power supply will only see a load in the milliamp range. The (threat) of current is what draws the water apart before the current can be used across the cell.So, the main idea behind this is high side current limiting to the choke. The square pulsed frequency ensures that the scr turns off, even if it wants to lock in.

 

Meyer using the SCR in his early 8XA only showed that he understood how to create an oscillating circuit that was able to switch off the SCR as described in the pdf. whenever he had to switch without these oscillations he used transistors like 2N3055, the most powerful alternative at that time.today we have excellent substitutes called MosFets and there is no need to use SCRs any more for low power applications.

Trigger and stop Thryistor

Common Question 

Hi I want make 8xa circuit with my friend. but we couldnt understnad that after trigger scr how can it be stop and trigger again. Because you know after trigger scr it works continously .but in circuit we must generete pulse. on -off. Also why meyer used ecr thrystor c38m. not any mosfet.  thanks:) or my question is wrong

 

Read this​

https://www.electronics-tutorials.ws/power/thyristor-circuit.html

"But remember though that once a Thyristor starts to conduct it continues to conduct even with no Gate signal, until the Anode current decreases below the devices holding current, (IH) and below this value it automatically turns-“OFF”.

 

Then unlike bipolar transistors and FET’s, thyristors cannot be used for amplification or controlled switching."So you need to get the gate current lower enough.It seems you can find SCRs sensitive enough to react to light even, so you got many options

FOR MUCH MORE INDEPTH READING ON THE SCR HERE

Solid State relay Replacement SCR Switch 

Medium level Circuit work well with 8xa ,9xb,  can be diven by 9xa but not ideal as 9xa should drive mosfet or transistor boards. Based on Meyer Original Work and parts = YES IT WORKS Voltage   Stan Meyer have Parrelled Relays and also may have been trying to back switch eec with Triac ( see EEC Section)

Trying to back switch EEC 

Two SSRs with one input inverted will give you a DPST switch. 

The trick here is to use a bipolar signal (swings above and below ground reference) and connect it to one SSR, then reverse the leads and connect to the other SSR.  That will give you two switches that open and close opposite of each other, then just pick a common pole for both and connect them together. I can tell you though, they are sloooow.   700Hz is all for this one:
http://www.teledynerelays.com/pdf/industrial/S20DC100.pdfThis one looks a little better:
http://www.power-io.com/products/hdd.htm

SCR Modern Replacement Switch 

Entry level Circuit work well with 8xa ,9xb,  can be diven by 9xa but not ideal as 9xa should drive mosfet or transistor boards. Based on Meyer Original Work and parts = YES IT WORKS Voltagee Switch Limit is 50  Volts

HV Switch 

HIGH level Circuit work well with 8xa ,9xb,  can be diven by 9xa but not ideal as 9xa should drive mosfet or transistor boards.

Based on Meyer Original Work and parts = YES IT WORKS Voltage

Switch Limit is 2500  Volts Static protect 50,000v

www.source-for-innovations.com

This isolating electronic switch can be operated by AC 12V, DC 8-16V or 9V battery power supply. Robust design, IC sockets and screwed semiconductors just in case something blows up.

Parts can be replaced solder free within a minute.

Heavy duty fast MosFet (600V, 32A) and diode, mountable on heatsink.
Fast optocoupler, can be substituted by high voltage optocoupler up to 50,000 V.

Switch can be driven directly from 3.3V devices like Propeller microcontroller.

D3, D4 optional.

Available as a kit or ready to run. Prices according to actual pricelist.

H Bridge Switch 

Medium to Advanced level Circuit works well with 9xa and VIC Driver,  can be diven Can Replace EEC and Be Switch all in one Based on Meyer Original Work and parts = YES IT WORKS Voltagee Switch Limit is  HV  Volts

H Bridge Switch 

Medium to Advanced level Circuit works well with 9xa and VIC Driver,  Thee is part of Driver we have pulled it out to make a Seperate Boarrd for Training Purpose 

Based on Meyer Original Work and parts = YES IT WORKS Voltage Switch Limit is  HV  Volts

VIC Transformer Daughter Board Switch 

Medium to Advanced level Circuit works well with 9xa and VIC Driver,  Thee is part of Driver we have pulled it out to make a Seperate Boarrd for Training Purpose 

Based on Meyer Original Work and parts = YES IT WORKS Voltage Switch Limit is  HV  Volts

Advanced Half-Bridge Switch 

This is a continuation of th TwinSSR Solid Statee Rectififirs

How about using anti-parallel IGBTs instead of the diodes? Of course that raises costs but you´ll get identical switching behaviour. ?

 

 I've been looking at synchronous rectifier circuits too long I reckon.  Just seems like there must be a way to handle this better, though I haven't yet found a specific circuit diagram that shows me how.  Really want to remove that diode drop.  It must be possible.

FINALLY   Somebody has the right idea:

Advanced level Circuit works well with 9xa and VIC Driver,   

THis is a  advancmeent on the H Bridge 2 joined together or woring signular for several alicatons Rated 1 kv 

Based on Meyer Original Work and parts = YES IT WORKS

Voltage Switch Limit is  HV 1 kv  Volts 

Put some silicon carbide MOSFETs on there and run it 'til it bleeds.  :-)

AttributesR-REF01-HB

  • AC/DC or DC/DCDC/DC

  • IsolationIsolated

  • Isolation (kV)2.5

  • Package StyleOpen Frame

  • Length (mm)90.0

  • Width (mm)60.0

  • Height (mm)51.0

  • Packaging TypeCardboard Bo


Wolfspeed 650V Series of SiC MOSFETs

https://www.wolfspeed.com

C3M0015065D650 V15mΩ120 ATO-247-3

C3M0015065K650 V15mΩ120 ATO-247-4

C3M0060065D650 V60mΩ37 ATO-247-3

C3M0060065J650 V60mΩ36 ATO-263-7

C3M0060065K650 V60mΩ37 ATO-247-4

Universal Switch--closest thing to an actual mechanical switch

that can run at a much higher speed.

A pair of them would allow you to do a really sweet full bridge drive.

Seems this could be pretty darn useful.  Appears to be available at Digi-Key and Arrow for those that might want one (or a dozen) on their bench. It's worth studying the schematic, as this is the proper way to drive high power switching transistors.

This seems to be one of the very best hi & low side transistor switching devices

I've ever seen 

Yes, a pair of them would allow you to do a really sweet full bridge drive.
This guy appears to be the heart of the board--fast with 2500 volts isolation and a 4A amp gate drive output.60x90mm four layer PETLOV= " yes, 3 of those and you got really good grounds for a 3-phase inverter." "I wouldn't be the least bit surprised if there's actually such a ready made arduino sketch to be had somewhere."

  https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/engineering/three-phase-inverter

Above is R2110 driver  only for example purrpose to show the below full bridge further eexample how how you might join two 
R-REF01-HB hald bridge units to make a full bridge 
 Fig. 1 - A typical high-voltage half-bridge section,  

Making a full bridge out of 2 half bridge.

Above is R2110 driver  only for example purrpose to show the below full bridge further eexample how how you might join two 
R-REF01-HB hald bridge units to make a full bridge 
 Fig. 2 - A typical high-voltage full -bridge section,  
I have Addd a Page for further reading if you need to buid such it is a good lead in before you attempt a
UNIVERSAL Switch BUILD
(a 2 Two way Switch )
(Further Reading Connecting to half bridge Notes)

R-REF01-HB Universal Half-Bridge Reference Design

RECOM’s half-bridge reference design is ideal to evaluate switching transistors

RECOM's universal half-bridge reference design can be used to compare the real-life performance of various high power IGBT,

 

1st/2nd generation SiC, GaN, MOSFET, and Cascode switching technologies.

The gate driver and PCB layout is the same for every transistor type so engineers will be able to compare switching performances and make informed choices about the proper technology for their application.

https://www.digikey.com/en/product-highlight/r/recom-power/r-ref01-hb-universal-half-bridge-reference-design

 

The reference design consists of a half-bridge layout with a fully isolated driver stage using isolated power supplies for both the low-side and the high-side switching transistors.

 

Included in the package are four sets of different DC/DC converters which generate the appropriate isolated driver voltages for the different transistor types. Engineers can thus select which TO247 or TO247-4L (Kelvin connection) packaged switching transistors they wish to evaluate from the supplier of their choice, fit the appropriate DC/DC converter to match, and then rapidly prototype and test their application.

As a basic building block, this reference design can be used to evaluate forward, flyback, buck, and boost topologies, and by combining two or more units it can be used to evaluate full-bridge and 3-phase bridge circuits.

 

The PCB is optimized for high-speed switching up to 1000 V at up to 10 A gate drive current. The signal ground is galvanically isolated from the power ground and the on-board BNC sockets are fitted for high speed connections to the external TTL signal generators.

 

Since the high-side and low-side controls are separate, this reference design can also be utilized to implement asymmetric duty cycles, active clamps, and phase shifted full-bridge topologies.

Additional Information: Reference Design Boards

FeaturesApplications

  • Half-bridge voltage up to 1 kV

  • TTL-compatible signal input

  • Single 15 V to 42 V supply

  • Shoot-through protection

  • Separate input for low- and high-side switch for use with different topologies

Layout

 

  • IGBT, SiC, and GaN driver circuits

  • Motor control units

  • General purpose inverters

  • Uninterruptible power supplies

  • Welding machines

Advanced Half-Bridge Switch 2

 EXTEME Advanced level Circuit works well with 9XB 9xa and VIC Driver, 

  To much to put on this page have to see EEC PAGE 

Paul Babcock inspired Worlds Best EEC Switch 

 Advanced ALIEN NICOLA TESLA   level Circuit works well with

9XB 9xa and VIC Driver,  Voltage Switch Limit is  XTREME HV  Volts 

Two way Back switch IGBT and Mosfet Hybrid  back switches electon extaction emf  from the DBD Barrier Voltrolysis Cell.to caps

 

 

IGBT or MOSFET: Choose Wisely

 Advanced level Circuit works well with 9XB 9xa and VIC Driver, 

  To much to put on this page have to see Steam Generator PAGE 

Multi Boost Switch 

 Advanced level Circuit works well with 9XB 9xa and VIC Driver, 

The is part of BOOST SYSTEM 

 we have pulled it out to make a Sepeerate Boarrd for Training Purpose 

Based on Meyer Original Work and parts = YES IT WORKS

Voltage Switch Limit is  HV  Volts

Battery / Power switcher. 

How to make a battery /power to on off thee wheel hub generators switcher. Seemed contacts Was the way. But that means I have to have power all the time on those relays.?

Latching DPDT relays is the way to go here.  Then all you need is a short pulse to toggle the switch.

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